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Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

The coagglutination (CoA) method for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae colonies grown on selective culture media was used on 116 strains in a routine venereological laboratory together with the direct immunofluorescence (IF) test and the sugar fermentation reaction

Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the routine

  1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea. Here, we report that this pathogen harbors a gene that encodes a histone deacetylase-like enzyme (Gc-HDAC) that shares high 3D-homology to human HDAC1, HDAC2 and HDAC8
  2. ent segments
  3. The clinically important species of Neisseria species (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria cinerea and Moraxella catarrhalis) are relatively easy to identify from the non pathogenic Neisseria. N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis are the two main pathogens of the group
  4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a significant threat to global health for which a vaccine and novel treatment options are urgently needed. Glycans expressed by human cells are commonly targeted by pathogens to facilitate interactions with the host, and thus characterization of these interactions can aid identification of bacterial receptors that can be exploited as vaccine and/or drug targets
  5. Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system is improved by a database extension. J Clin Microbiol 54:1130-1132. Google Scholar; 123. Cunningham SA, Mainella JM, Patel R. 2014

Identification of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Histone

  1. If using serologic methods such as coagglutination or fluorescent antibody tests, they should be supplemented with additional tests that will ensure accurate identification of the isolates. Carbohydrate utilization using cystine trypticase soy agar (CTA) is no longer recommended for N. gonorrhoeae due to misleading results. N. gonorrhoeae produces acid ONLY from glucose, and commercial tests are available to detect acid production
  2. Biochemical Test and Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. They are gram -ve, non-haemolytic, catalase and oxidase both positive organism
  3. c. Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Once isolated, N. gonorrhoeae can be identified by the oxidase test, Gram-staining, carbohydrate utilization reactions, rapid enzyme substrate tests, serologic methods such as fluorescent antibody tests, or a DNA probe culture confirmation technique. 1
  4. opeptidase-positive) in this test as do isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. Thus, additional tests must be performed to differentiate between these species

Identification of N. gonorrhoeae and Related Species Biochemical Tests for the Identification of N. gonorrhoeae and Related Species Traditionally, tests used to identify strains of Neisseria species were performed as individual non-commercial tests The growing multidrug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a serious global threat to gonococcal therapy. During 2017-2018, we identified a rare multidrug-resistant (ceftriaxone and azithromycin) strain (GC250) and four strains (GC185, GC195, GC196 and GC249) with both resistance to ceftriaxone The enzymatic profiles of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, and related species were determined, using a total of 48 chromogenic substrates. Enzyme classes assayed for included glycosidases, aminopeptidases, phosphoamidases, proteases, lipases, esterases, and aryl sulfatase Presumptive Laboratory Identification: Neisseria gonorrhoeae. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommendations, the presumptive identification of N. gonorrhoeae can be made if ONE of the following criteria is met: 1. Direct Gram Stain from Symptomatic MALES Only

A reagent and test for the identification of the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Lipopolysaccharide antigen, found to be common to N. gonorrhoeae strains, is used to inoculate fowl, and serum from the fowl recovered containing antibodies causing agglutination of cells of all N. gonorrhoeae strains The Superoxol (Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, N.J.) test (catalase test using 30% H2O2) was used to differentiate Neisseria gonorrhoeae from other Neisseria species. A positive test was defined as immediate, brisk bubbling upon dropping 30% H2O2 onto a bacterial colony. One hundred percent of the gonococci were Superoxol positive The principal proteins associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae peptidoglycan (PG), as identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, are the following: two proteins at approximately 90 kilodaltons (kDa), single major species at both 60 and 44 kDa, a 34- to 36-kDa protein, and three proteins between 28 and 32 kDa SMI ID 6: identification of Neisseria species. UK Standards for Microbiology Investigations ID 6: identification of Neisseria species. From Epigenetic reprogramming in macrophages is termed trained innate immunity, which regulates immune tolerance and limits tissue damage during infection. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea. Here, we report that this pathogen harbors a gene that encodes a histone deacetylase-like enzyme (Gc-HDAC) that shares high 3D.

Bacteria Gonococcus Or Meningococcus Stock Illustration

Identification and classification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a major public health concern [].Complications from gonococcal disease include infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and neonatal conjunctivitis, which can cause blindness [].Furthermore, gonococcal infection increases HIV acquisition and transmission by increasing viral shedding [] Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative pathogenic β-proteobacterium, which usually appears as diplococci and is strictly limited to the human as host. It belongs to the genus Neisseria that also includes the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis and several non-pathogenic species, e. g. Neisseria lactamica or Neisseria cinerea

  1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae| 63 N eisseria gonorrhoeae, also commonly referred to as gonococcus or GC, causes an estimated 62 million cases of gonorrhea worldwide each year [Gerbase et al., 1998].Spread by sexual intercourse,N. gonorrhoeae may infect the mucosal surfaces of urogenital sites (cervix, urethra, rectum) and th
  2. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared with the API NH biochemical method for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in routine clinical samples. A retrospective review of laboratory records for 1090 isolates for which both bioch
  3. ated gonococcemia, septic arthritis, and gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum
  4. Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the Bruker matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization−time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system may be affected by B consistency categorization. A supplementary database of 17 N. gonorrhoeae main spectra was constructed. Twelve of 64 N. gonorrhoeae identifications were categorized with B consistency, which disappeared using the.
Gram-Negative Cocci and Coccobacilli of Medical

Cultural and biochemical characteristics for identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Gonorrhoeae is a fragile organism with strict environmental and nutritional requirements. At pH 7.0-7.4 and at a temperature of 35-36 °C, growth occurs best. It is an aerobe meaning it needs oxygen to grow, however it can grow in anaerobic conditions as well A reagent and test for the identification of the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Lipopolysaccharide antigen, found to be common to N. gonorrhoeae strains, is used to inoculate fowl, and serum from the fowl recovered containing antibodies causing agglutination of cells of all N. gonorrhoeae strains. The identification test comprises adding the recovered antibody reagent to a suspension of. Identification ofNeisseria gonorrhoeae in the routine venereological laboratory fermentation reaction, using the method of Stacey and co-workers,25 and by the CoA method. The latter methodaimsmerelyat a rapid andeasyidenti-fication ofNgonorrhoeae. Patients andmethods During the period, 1 April to 15 June 1978, 116 strains ofNeisseria (61. A slide co-agglutination test was perfomrd, using a serological identification reagent Phadebact ® Gonococcus Test(Pharmacia Diagnostic AB: Sweden) with 120 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 42 strains of N. meningitidis, 19 strains of other Neisseria species, 6 strains of Branhamella catarrhalis and 2 strains of Haemophilus influenzae. The Menck's direct colonies method, by which a few. Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates with a recombinant porA gene in Scotland, United Kingdom, 2010 to 2011 K Eastick (Kirstine.eastick@luht.scot.nhs.uk)1, A Winter2, S Jamdar3 1. Scottish Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections Reference Laboratory, Edinburgh, United Kingdo

The identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by sensitive, precise, and rapid technique is important for the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patients with gonorrhoea. For decades, the standard method of identification of the pathogen has been acid production from cystine tryptic agar (CTA) medium containing carbohydrates [1] A reagent and test for the identification of the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Lipopolysaccharide antigen, found to be common to N. gonorrhoeae strains, is used to inoculate fowl, and serum from the fowl recovered containing antibodies causing agglutination of cells of all N. gonorrhoeae strains. The identification test comprises adding the recovered antibody reagent to a suspension of. Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been on the rise in the State of Florida since 2013. Florida currently follows the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for identifying those at-risk for gonorrhea and drug resistant gonorrhea infections. These groups are narrowly defined and do not consider the different population dynamics throughout the State L-K Ng, IE Martin. The laboratory diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol 2005;16(1):15-25. The present article describes the laboratory diagnosis of Neisseria gon-orrhoeae by culturing of the organism from different types of clinical specimens followed by confirmatory tests. The success of cultur

Neisseria spp

Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by Means of Fluorescent Antibodies W. E. Deacon, William L. Peacock, Jr., Elizabeth M. Freeman, and Ad Harris Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1959 101 : 2 , 322-32 Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a significant threat to global health for which a vaccine and novel treatment options are urgently needed. Glycans expressed by human cells are commonly targeted by pathogens to facilitate interactions with the host, and thus characterization of these interactions can aid identification of bacterial receptors that can be exploited as vaccine and/or drug targets. Using.

Glycointeractome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Identification

and can aid the identification of maltose negative meningococci. Recently, kits detecting preformed enzymes have become available, someofwhich also identify Haemophilus. Results are obtained within four hours and are compared with identification profiles stored in a database. The final choice of a gonococcal identification system will be influence 6. Results of biochemical and enzymatic tests for Neisseria 70 gonorrhoeae and related species with similar colonial morphology 7. Examples of quality control (QC) strains for supplemental 71 tests used to identify Neisseria gonorrhoeae 8. Phenotypic designations ofNeisseria gonorrhoeae 88 9. Acceptable limits for minimal inhibitory. Neisseria species other than N. gonorrhoeae. Out of 10 strains ofN. meningitidis tested six gave positive reactions,twonegativereactions,andtwowereauto-agglutinating. Excluding the latter, this was a 75% positivityrate. Outof25Neisseriaspecies otherthan N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis tested six were positive, nine negative, and 10. Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by the Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry against Antibiotics Surveillance project (GRAS) QC distribution, system is improved by a database extension. J Clin Microbiol 54:1130 -1132. which is a national surveillance program for N. gonorrhoeae.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae stock illustration

Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Neisseria meningitidis: 1: Referred as: Referred to as gonococcus. Referred to as meningococcus. 2: Agents: N. gonorrhoeae is the agent of gonorrhoea. N. meningitidis is a major cause of cerebrospinal meningitis. 3: Vaccine Development: No: Serogroup A, B, C, Y and W-135 meningococcal infections can be prevented by. The clinically important Neisseria species (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria lactamica and Neisseria cinerea) are relatively easy to identify from the non-pathogenic Neisseria. N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis are the two main pathogens of the group. The other species of Neisseria such as N. lactamica and N. cinerea. Whilst the identification of non-gonococcal Neisseria observed between API NH, RapID NH and Gonochek II as to strains to species level is generally not required, the mis- which isolates possessed or lacked the Pip enzyme in identification of these strains as N. gonorrhoeae can have gonococci was reassuring; however, the performance of the. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is evolving into a superbug with resistance to previously and currently recommended antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea, which is a major public health concern globally The Neisseria gonorrhoeae Real-Time PCR Detection Kit is in vitro DNA test, which is intended for the specific identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in human biological samples. Sample: scrapes from urethra, cervix, or posterolateral vaginal wall. DNA extraction: PREP-NA, PREP-GS, PREP-RAPID extraction kits

OBJECTIVE: To analyze synovial fluid (SF) for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: We used a modified, nested PCR to detect the presence of N gonorrhoeae DNA in 41 samples of SF obtained from 10 patients with clinical gonococcal arthritis whose SF samples were sterile by culture and from. N. gonorrhoeae belongs to the genus Neisseria, of which N. gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis (also known as the meningococcus) are the two pathogenic species, with the latter being a leading. identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae at another public health laboratory so that routine identification of gonorrhea could be done with this new technology instead of traditional identification methodologies (e.g., sugar fermentation, agglutination tests, and probe-based assays) Identification and characterization of a Neisseria gonorrhoeae gene encoding a glycolipid-binding adhesin D K Paruchuri , H S Seifert , R S Ajioka , K A Karlsson , M So Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jan 1990, 87 (1) 333-337; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.87.1.33 Neisseria gonorrhoeae- Laboratory Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention; Z-test- definition, formula, examples, uses, z-test vs t-test Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae Biochemical Test, Neisseria gonorrhoeae Identification Post navigation. Laboratory diagnosis of Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. Biochemical Test of Bacillus.

Identification Neisseri

to Neisseria gonorrhoeae identification has re-cently been announced (Deacon, Peacock et al., 1959, 1960). It is the purpose of the present communication to review this new development and to discuss possible applications. PRINCIPLES OF FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY PROCEDURES APPLIED TO NEISSERIA Fluorescent antibody procedures are essentiall Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen and is the etiological agent of gonorrhea. In the United States, it is the second most commonly reported communicable disease, with more than 350,000 cases reported annually. Syndromes include cervicitis in women and urethritis, pharyngitis and proctitis in both sexes In 2016, we identified a ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate in China. The strain genotype was identical to the resistant clone FC428 that originated in Japan. Enhanced international collaborative surveillance programs are crucial to track the transmission of the ceftriaxone-resistant clones

Definitive Laboratory Identification: Neisseria gonorrhoea

Biochemical Test and Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoea

A real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay was designed for the simultaneous identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its ciprofloxacin susceptibility status. A SYBR green-based multiplex RT-PCR format was used; it comprised two different forward primers and a common reverse primer to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in gyrA of N. gonorrhoeae.The primer pairs were evaluated for their. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was compared with the API NH biochemical method for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in routine clinical samples. A retrospective review of laboratory records for 1090 isolates for which both biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identifications were available was performed for cloning. The sequence of pJD1 from N. gonorrhoeae 82409/55(pJD1) has been reported (12); pFA102 from N. gonorrhoeae FA19has arestriction mapidentical to pJD1. Growth of Bacteria. N. gonorrhoeae strains were grown andmaintainedasdescribed(3, 13).E.coliHB101wasgrown in LB medium with antibiotics as appropriate (14). Fo Through the past decade, MALDI-TOF MS has been recognized as a fast and robust tool for identification of most bacteria in clinical microbiology. However, the accuracy of this method to identify Neisseria species is still debated, and few data are available about commensal Neisseria species identification. In this study, we assessed two MALDI-TOF MS systems (Bruker Biotyper and Andromas) for.

A key mechanism that Neisseria gonorrhoeae uses to achieve multidrug resistance is the expulsion of structurally different antimicrobials by the MtrD multidrug efflux protein. MtrD resembles the homologous Escherichia coli AcrB efflux protein with several common structural features, including an open cleft containing putative access and deep binding pockets proposed to interact with substrates. Neisseria - Prac. Microbiology 1. General Characters of the Genus 1. Gram-negative diplococci 2. 2. Aerobic 3. Oxidase positive (the key test of the genus) 3. The genus includes: Many commensals Two important human pathogens: 1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococci) 2. Neisseria meningitidis ( meningococci) 4. . Morphology Certificate of Analysis Download. To download a certificate of analysis for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Zopf) Trevisan ( 19424 ), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or packing slip. Lot number. Get Certificate of Analysis. Certificate of Analysis Request. The certificate of analysis for that lot of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Lab 16: Isolation and Identification of Neisseriae

Neisseria elongata - Gonorrhea - STD Information from CDC

Characteristics - Gonorrhea - STD Information from CD

Biochemical Tests - Gonorrhea - STD Information from CD

A monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against a highly conserved protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with a molecular size of 40 kDa was isolated and characterized. The protein antigen detected by this MAb was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting in all strains of N. gonorrhoeae tested across a wide range of serovars The most common site of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is the urogenital tract. Men with this infection may experience dysuria with penile discharge, and women may have mild vaginal mucopurulent. The ideal laboratory test to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) should be sensitive, specific, easy to use, rapid, and affordable and should provide information about susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs. Currently, such a test is not available and presumably will not be in the near future. Thus, diagnosis of gonococcal infections presently includes application of different techniques to. The majority of Neisseria species are considered normal flora of mucous membranes on humans. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a sexually transmitted pathogen and Neisseria meningitidis is often associated with meningitis as well as colonization of the nasopharynx. M. catarrhalis causes respiratory tract and other infections Neisseria gonorrhoeae which exhibit high levels of leukocyte association have a surface protein which is considerably diminished in isogenic gonococci which exhibit low levels of leukocyte association (LA). The LA protein exhibits strain variation in molecular weight and immunogenicity. Membranes derived from LA+ and LA- organisms show quantitative differences in their adsorption to leukocytes.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae - WikipediaAcid Detection Test - Gonorrhea - STD Information from CDC

Identification of multidrug-resistant Neisseria

Objective. To analyze synovial fluid (SF) for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods. We used a modified, nested PCR to detect the presence of N gonorrhoeae DNA in 41 samples of SF obtained from 10 patients with clinical gonococcal arthritis whose SF samples were sterile by culture and from 27 controls, including 11 patients with Reiter's. Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Drug Resistant Gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.One of the most frequently reported infectious disease in the world, it has developed resistance to nearly all antibiotics used for treatment over the last 80 years Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings).Descriptors are arranged in a hierarchical structure, which enables searching at various levels of specificity 23. Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus) N. gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoea. first described by Neisser in 1879 in gonorrheal pus. resembles meningococci very closely in many properties. 24

Urethritis laboratory findings - wikidoc

Rapid identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and

The Gonogen II test for rapid identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus, GC) was evaluated. The test is based on a colorimetric reaction with monoclonal antibody to GC outer membrane protein 1. Of the 50 clinical isolates of GC, 49 isolates tested positive and only one strain tested negative Manual for the laboratory identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens of public health importance in the developing world; Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Salmonella serotype Typhi, Shigella, and Vibrio cholera Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test. (5/2711) Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea which is is the second most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Its formal identification was in 1879 by the German bacteriologist Albert Neisser. Gonorrhea grows mainly in the warm, moist areas of the reproductive tract for. NEISSERIA Of the eleven species of Neisseria that colonize humans, only two are pathogens. 1N. gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) is the causative agent of gonorrhoea and is transmitted via sexual contact. Symptoms of infection with N. gonorrhoeae differ depending on the site of infection. Infection of the genitals can result in a purulent (or pus-like) discharge from th

Presumptive Laboratory Identification: Neisseria gonorrhoea

Eight identification methods were evaluated against 100 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 21 non-gonococcal Neisseria strains. The methods examined included four commercial biochemical kits, API NH, RapID NH, Gonochek II and Neisseria Preformed Enzyme Test (PET), three immunological kits, Phadebact Monoclonal GC test, GonoGen II and MicroTrak, and one in-house carbohydrate-utilization. A review of the most recent and updated literature on the current global situation of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae infections is presented. Gonorrhea is a sexual transmission disease (STD), 1 caused by the so called superbug 2,3 Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which is an intracellular Gram-negative diplococcus that primarily and exclusively infects human mucosa and may secondarily, spread to other tissue.

Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Canadian Patents

performance of 12 identification tests (enzymatic reactions or sugar fermentations), as well as the detection of a penicillinase (particular interest in Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Branhamella catarrhalis (Moraxella catarrhalis) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) identification of GC, MC, and Mcat, but additional testing may be warranted for NL and clinically significant Nsp isolates. ABSTRACT CarboFermTM Neisseria (CF, Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) is a new rapid carbohydrate (CHO) utilization test for identification of N. gonorrhoeae (GC), N. meningitidis (MC), N. lactamica (NL)

Identification of Neisserki (gonorrhoeae A. C. SANDERS, LT. COL. (MSC), USA, AND R. L. HULLINGHORST, LT. COL. (MC), USA Medical Field Service School, Ft. Sam Houston, Texas; and Department of Bacteriology, 406th Medical General Laboratory, San Francisco, Calif. A STUDY has been in progress in prescription bottle was used, each bottle this laboratory for the past two containing 10 ml. of solid. However, high-frequency transformation also makes N. gonorrhoeae one of the easiest bacterial species to manipulate genetically in the laboratory. Techniques have been developed that result in transformation frequencies >50%, allowing the identification of mutants by screening and without selection True or false: Gram stain must be performed on all suspected Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates to verify the appearance of gram negative diplococci. Kingella and Acinetobacter spp Are occasionally able to grow on gonococcal selective media Abstract: Neisseria gonorrhoeae is responsible for causing gonorrhea, one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases prevailing globally. Although extensive researches are in progress in order to control the transmission of the disease and to develop drug(s) against the pathogen, till date no effective vaccine or specific drug could be.